Overarching period:Caucasus Chalcolithic, 8,000 - 5,000 BP
Carbon dating: 6,300 - 5,400 BP
Location:Areni I - 39.73° North, 45.20° East
Site location country: Armenia
mtDNA haplogroups: H, K
Y haplogroups: L1a-M27
The Chalcolithic Period in the Caucasus:
Occurring around 8,000 to 5,000 years ago, the Chalcolithic was a period of increasing social complexity as farming villages flourished. Agricultural production intensified, large-scale trade networks expanded, settlements became increasingly interdependent, and population density soared [1, 2]. Material culture, technology and social organisation became increasingly complex, leading to the first literate, urban centres in Mesopotamia by the end of the Chalcolithic .
Much of the cultural developments that occurred in Mesopotamia and the rest of West Asia also spread to the Caucasus region . This is an area located between the Black Sea and Caspian Sea, comprised of the countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Russia. The region is dominated by the Caucasus Mountains, which act as a natural boundary between Asia and Eastern Europe.
In the Caucasus, the preceding Neolithic period has been characterised by the adoption of agriculture and a sedentary lifestyle . By around 8,000 years ago, Caucasian communities were growing rain-fed crops like barley, wheat, rye, lentils, and legumes, and farming sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs [2, 6]. The production of metal became common during this period, and evidence of metalwork is often used to differentiate between late Neolithic and early Chalcolithic sites.
The late Neolithic and early Chalcolithic in the Caucasus is best represented by the Shulaveri-Shomutepe culture, dating to 7,900 – 7,000 years ago, and found at sites such as Shulaveris Gora in Georgia and Khatunarkh in Armenia [7, 8]. This culture is characterised by circular mud-brick architecture, sophisticated obsidian technology, and coarse, handmade pottery [6, 9, 10]. Many of these cultural traits are believed to have originated in nearby West Asia, showing particular similarities to the Chalcolithic Halaf culture that ranged from northwest Iran across northern Iraq and Syria into southern Anatolia [11, 12].
The later Chalcolithic was a period of cultural development. Evidence of larger, multi-roomed structures can be found, such as a possible temple at Berikldeebi in Georgia. Similarly, in Alikemek-Tepe, Azerbaijan, a semi-subterranean building has been discovered, which featured clay walls, painted white and decorated with geometric designs . The amount of handmade ceramics also increases, some with decorated or serrated rims. Obsidian technology was common, and we also see an increase in metallurgical experimentation, with a knife found at Tekhut, and awls and a bracelet discovered at Berikldeebi .
The Chalcolithic presence at Areni I:
Areni I is a three-chambered cave located near the modern-day village of Areni in southern Armenia. Also known as Birds’ Cave, this was a Chalcolithic site dating to 6,300 - 5,400 years ago .
The conditions of Areni I allowed excellent preservation, and organic remains indicate its inhabitants ate barley, wheat, lentils, and nuts, as well as fruits such as plums, grapes and pears . Evidence shows that the community at Areni I used the cave for multiple purposes: living, raising livestock, producing wine, manufacturing obsidian tools, and performing ritual behaviours. In fact, this site yields the world’s earliest evidence for wine-making and footwear: a 6,100-year-old winery, featuring fermentation vats and a wine press, was discovered here, as well as a well-preserved leather shoe, dating to 5,500 years ago [7, 15]. Likely a European size 37, this shoe was meant to be worn on the right foot, and was stuffed with grass to maintain its shape during storage . Textiles, baskets and reed mats have also been discovered here, as well as a few copper weapons . A large amount of stylistically heterogeneous pottery is also present, including painted and engraved pottery found at various sites across the Caucasus, suggesting the community that inhabited Areni I was involved in long-distance trade networks.
There are multiple secondary burials at Areni I, in which human skulls were buried in clay pots . Five individuals (three males and two females) have been genetically sequenced, including three children aged between eight and fifteen years old . DNA analysis indicates that Chalcolithic Armenians, such as the inhabitants of Areni I, derived around half of their ancestry from the Neolithic peoples of Anatolia. A further third of their ancestry was inherited from Neolithic Iranians .
All three male specimens from Areni I carried Y-chromosome haplogroup L1a-M27. This M27 mutation is common in South Asian haplogroup L Y-chromosomes, but was absent from Y-chromosomes found in Anatolia [18, 19]. The fact that all three males carried haplogroup L shows that this haplogroup was present in Chalcolithic Armenia; however, since all three samples come from the same site, it is undetermined whether this haplogroup was common or not . Today, L occurs at a very low frequency in modern-day Armenians . Two of the Areni I people carried mitochondrial haplogroup H, whilst another two carried haplogroup K. Both H and K originated in the Near East, and are common in Europe today [21, 22].
Genetic analysis reveals that the Chalcolithic Armenians derived around one-quarter of their ancestry from the ‘Basal Eurasians.’ The Basal Eurasians are a lineage which split off prior to the differentiation of all other European lineages, and prior to the interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern humans that occurred around 50,000 – 65,000 years ago .
- Campbell, S. 2012. Northern Mesopotamia. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Blackwell Publishing Ltd
- Matthews, R. 2009. Peoples and Complex Societies of Ancient Southwest Asia. In Scarre, C. (ed.) The Human Past. Thames & Hudson Ltd, London
- Sundsdal, K. 2011. The Uruk Expansions: Culture contact, ideology and middlemen. Norwegian Archaeological Review 44(2): 164-185
- Kiguradze, T. 2001. Caucasian Chalcolithic. In Ember, M. and Peregrine, P.N. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Prehistory. New York : Kluwer Academic/Plenum, 38-54
- Hamon, C. 2008. From Neolithic to Chalcolithic in the Southern Caucasus: Economy and Macrolithic Implements from Shulaveri-Shomu Sites of Kwemo-Kartli (Georgia). Paleorient 34(2): 85-135
- Connor, S.E. and Sagona, A. 2007. Environment and society in the late prehistory of southern Georgia, Caucasus. In Lyonnet, B. (ed.) Les Cultures du Caucase (VIe-IIIe millénaires avant notre ère): leurs relations avec le Proche-Orient. Editions CNRS, Paris, 21-36
- McGovern, P., Jalabadze, M., Batiuk, S. et al. 2017. Early Neolithic wine of Georgia in the South Caucasus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114(48)
- Kushnareva, K.K. 1997. The Southern Caucasus in Prehistory: Stages of Cultural and Socioeconomic Development from the Eighth to the Second Millennium BC. University Museum Monograph 99, trans Michael, H.N. (Univ of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia)
- Kiguradze, T. 2000. The Chalcolithic - Early Bronze Age transition in the eastern Caucasus. Publications de l'Institut Français d'Études Anatoliennes 11(321-328)
- Chataigner, C., Badalyan, R. and Arimura, M. 2014. The Neolithic of the Caucasus. Oxford Handbooks Online
- Kiguradze, T. 2001. Caucasian Neolithic. In Ember, M. and Peregrine, P.N. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Prehistory. New York : Kluwer Academic/Plenum, 55-76
- Spataro, M. and Fletcher, A. 2010. Centralisation or Regional Identity in the Halaf Period? Examining Interactions within Fine Painted Ware Production. Paleorient 36(2): 91-116
- Lazaridis, I., Nadel, D., Rollefson, G. et al. 2016. Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East. Nature 536 (7617): 419-424
- Areshian, G. E. et al. 2012. The chalcolithic of the Near East and south-eastern Europe: discoveries and new perspectives from the cave complex Areni-1, Armenia. Antiquity 86: 115130
- Barnard, H., Dooley, A. N., Areshian, G. et al. 2011. Chemical evidence for wine production around 4000 BCE in the Late Chalcolithic Near Eastern highlands. Journal of Archaeological Science 38: 977-984
- Pinhasi, R. et al. 2010. First Direct Evidence of Chalcolithic Footwear from the Near Eastern Highlands. PLoS ONE 5
- Wilkinson, K. et al. 2012. Areni-1 Cave, Armenia: A Chalcolithic–Early Bronze Age settlement and ritual site in the southern Caucasus. Journal of Field Archaeology 37:20-33
- Thanseem, I. et al. 2006. Genetic affinities among the lower castes and tribal groups of India: inference from Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. BMC Genetics 7(42)
- Cinnioğlu, C. et al. 2004. Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia. Human Genetics 114: 127-148
- Herrera, K. J. et al. 2012. Neolithic patrilineal signals indicate that the Armenian plateau was repopulated by agriculturalists. European Journal of Human Genetics 20: 313-320
- Achilli, A. 2004. The Molecular Dissection of mtDNA Haplogroup H Confirms That the Franco-Cantabrian Glacial Refuge Was a Major Source for the European Gene Pool. American Journal of Human Genetics. 75: 910–918.
- Núñez, C., Baeta, M., Cardoso, S. et al. 2016. Mitochondrial DNA Reveals the Trace of the Ancient Settlers of a Violently Devastated Late Bronze and Iron Ages Village PLoS One11
- Sankararaman, S., Patterson, N., Li, H. et al. 2012. The date of interbreeding between Neandertals and modern humans. Public Library of Science Genetics 8(10)